Between management training and executive development approaches, time management is gaining increasing importance. As a matter of fact, the rapid development of science and technology, the increase of information with each passing day, and more importantly, the communication is highly developed has accelerated the management practices. Managers have to make more decisions, to obtain more information, to consider more factors and to work more. The ability to do all this in a healthy way depends largely on the efficient and efficient use of time. As a result of this, it is known that many managers today have time problems (Findikçi, i996).
Regardless of the level found, the time that all managers devote to managerial work is called managerial time (Türkmen, i996: 2). Administrative time is the amount of time the organization spends to achieve its goal. Used for executive time, superiors, subordinates, officials in other departments, environmental factors and visits, and for their own needs.
Time is one of the important resources of management. However, it is the worst used and spent resource. We do not pay much attention to the promise of iniz produce and consume time “(Efii, 2000). Ensuring efficiency and efficiency in management is closely related to the use of time. Effective and efficient use of time, to be able to be based on time problems, not to have problems in the use of time are now among the characteristics of effective managers sought. In this form, it is the person who can rule the administrator time and use his time efficiently.
Most of the approaches to the duties of managers begin with the suggestion that it should first plan its work. Although this is a very reasonable approach, it rarely works. Most of the plans remain well-intentioned initiatives on paper and rarely succeed. Effective managers are often the ones who know where time goes, eliminate the unproductive demands over time, and control their time. One of the most important problems for executives is that they can make time interrupted by daily tasks as long as possible.
According to Senge (1998), managers have plenty of time to think in depth, but they can not do it; they typically define strategies and then switch to another strategy that they face with strategic problems, then to another, and then to another. Time management is not an order of senior management, but an area where the sample has a significant effect (Senge, i998: 328).
Active managers should pay attention to the time they devote to thinking. If not, why not? do business presses prevent time sparing, or to some extent do they do it to themselves? Where is the piston power in both cases? They need to know that.
well-educated, competent, leadership managers are people with high level of competence in controlling time. Controlling time means controlling time. Managing time can place events and phenomena according to their priorities (Acikalin, i998).
Famous managerial scientist Peter Drucker (1994) advises time-wise: the manager should not derive from his duties, but should be timely. and not by making plans, but by finding out what time is actually spent. Then, he tends to control his time and push aside unproductive demands on his time. Finally, it combines the intermittent time into the longest possible units.
The manager should see his own work and what he will do in advance, choose the work he should not do, get rid of the distribution and make time limitation in meetings and agenda items. In order to better manage the time of the administrator should pay attention to water issues (Çapur, 1997: 380):
• Make a quick decision. That doesn’t always mean rash. It merely points to the fact that 85% of the problems encountered are jobs that do not require thinking for more than a few minutes. It should give decisive answers.
• Accuracy is important when determining the day. It should determine the orders and appointments with definite expressions. Words such as bir I take a day a week “and gr You can come whenever you want” mean either neglect or overthrow or pass.
• Control the phone. In some establishments the phone becomes an almost terrible monster for the rulers. If there’s anybody to pick up the phone, let him do it. then when the caller is the caller manager himself.
• A small reminder note / moment. You should not rely on memory to remind you of things to do. Small reminder notes should be taken.
Traditional Time Management Approaches and Criticisms
Covey (2000) generally examined the impact of time management approaches on quality of life, strengths and weaknesses. These are summarized below (Covey, 2000: 356-365).
Self-Recovery Approach (Order):
This approach claims that most of the problems that arise in time management are caused by disorder in our lives. Most of the time we can’t find what we want. There’s always something going on in between. Often the answer lies in the system: filing, incoming and outgoing documents, reminder and database systems. These systems generally focus on regulation in three areas:
• Edit objects. to organize everything from keys to computer screens, filing systems, document warehouses, office space to kitchen area.
• Organize tasks. Using a variety of tools, from simple lists to complex planning tables and project management software, to organize and order “things to do”.
• Organize people. To define the works that you and others can do, delegate authority, and create monitoring systems to control what is going on.
The layout approach transcends personal practice and moves to corporate practice. When an organization is in a difficult situation, it is time to reorganize, restructure, shake everything up and pull ourselves together.
Strengths; This approach saves us time and makes us more productive. We don’t waste time searching for keys, clothing or lost reports. We don’t waste our efforts.
Weaknesses; Rather than being a tool for larger purposes, editing becomes a tool per se. That’s what’s dangerous. Much of the time is spent on planning instead of production. A lot of people think they’re doing their job with plans. When the century goes, the power of planning becomes a weakness. We can become over-structured, clay-broken, distant and mechanical. This applies to individuals as well as institutions.
Warrior Approach (Survival and Independent Production):
The warrior approach focuses on the maintenance of time and production. It includes powerful techniques like the following.
• Insulate yourself. Acting the secretary, closing the doors, using a secretary, rejecting meaningless communications.
• Be alone. To retreat to a place where you can stay alone.
• Delegation. To assign time to more effective jobs.
Strengths; The warrior approach is strong, that is, to take the responsibility of our time personally. Since we have a quiet, uncomfortable time to work efficiently and independently, we can produce.
Weaknesses; This approach basically sees others as enemies. It is a paradigm that considers survival: Isolate, isolate, digest. Nervous. Say no. remove people from your working room. Hang up in the middle of the call. This approach can get people out of the way so we can do what we want. However, when we include the cues that we want to make, we realize that they generally do not cooperate at all. This conservative, isolationist approach ignores the fact that quality of life is interdependent and often only serves to address the problem.
The goal approach basically says, “Know what you want and make an effort to achieve it.” It includes techniques such as long, medium, short-term planning, goal setting, visualization, self-motivation and positive thinking.
This is the approach of world-class performers, Olympic athletes. It is the power of less talented people to overpower the performance of larger talents, willing to pay the price, ie organizing forces, intensifying energy, not allowing obstacles to intervene. It is known that individuals and institutions that set targets in front of them are more successful.
There are numerous people who use the Target Approach to climb the success ladder. They make extraordinary efforts to set goals and achieve them. But when they get what they want, they find it doesn’t bring the expected result. Life looks like an empty balloon. If it is not based on goals, principles, and basic needs, the state of being locked into a single goal that makes it possible to reach will blind people to the imbalance in their lives.
ABC Approach (Ordering Priorities and Determining Values):
The ABC Approach says, “You can do what you want, but you can’t do everything.” It is inspired by the Target Approach and adds sequentiality, an important concept to it. “Concentrate your efforts first on your most important tasks.” It includes techniques such as clarifying values and ranking tasks.
Strengths: This is the traditional “priority to important jobs” approach. Provides order and sequence. In daily life, this approach provides a set of techniques that differentiate the incentive to focus on the tasks to be done and the top priority tasks.
Weaknesses: Main error; clarifying values ignores the fact that principles and natural laws determine the quality of life. This negligence leads people to adopt and follow values that often contradict the laws of nature. These values only lead to a sense of frustration and failure.
Magic Vehicle Approach (Technology):
This approach is based on the assumption that the right tool (the right calendar, the right planning, the right computer program, the right computer) will give us the power to create quality of life. These tools really help us track priorities, plan things, and easily access main information. It basically assumes that systems and structures will help us to be more effective.
Strengths: Effective use of vehicles is of course very important. The right tools can make a strong difference from building a house to living. The abundance of printed and electronic tools on the market suggests that this is a very popular approach. Tools is a symbol of hope. There is a sense of satisfaction from taking notes, marking the work done on the list, and carefully watching the important things in our lives.
Weaknesses: The basic paradigm behind the design of many of the time management tools reverts to the “Target Approach” and the “ABC Approach”. These approaches have both strengths and serious mistakes; this is largely due to the disregard of external realities that determine the quality of life.
The basic assumption that technology is the answer to everything is also wrong. Even the most perfect tool cannot replace vision, measurement, creativity, character or competence.
Approach to Time Management 101 (Skills):
This approach is based on the paradigm that time management is basically a skill such as accounting or word processing, and to be effective in today’s world, we need to specialize in these types of skills:
• Use a planner or appointment book.
• Create a “To-do list”.
• Goal setting.
• Delegation of authority.
• Order priorities.
According to this theory, these basic skills create a kind of social literacy which is essential for sustaining life. This is a popular corporate approach. the lack of planning, goal setting or delegation of authority can have a serious impact on the organization. Many organizations, as part of human resources development programs, organize tapes, manuals and courses designed to teach employees the basic skills.
Strengths: some progress can be made, particularly in terms of the professional skills the organization values.
Weaknesses: Depth and quality of education is the most important issue. What basic paradigms are taught? Are they linked to the right principles? Or does it make invalid assumptions about the nature of life and its effectiveness?
Rather than institutional quality, skill and technique, it depends on the ability of individuals to align their character and behavior with principles. Today, most of the time management training programs consist of a mixed package of various technical and time saving tricks, and one or two principles such as planning and prioritizing. However, it is rare that people are empowered by applying these principles. Skills alone do not respond.
The Approach to “Let It Flow” (Harmony and Natural Rhythms):
This approach produces a number of different assumptions about time and life than traditional time management. According to the underlying paradigm, learning to “fall into flow” and returning to the natural rhythm of life will lead to spontaneity and unexpected opportunities in our lives.
Strong Side / moment: In time we experience one of those “time independent;; Within the object of the moment the mechanical tempo takes on silence. In this nature; away from clocks, telephones and computers, where we become aware of the natural rhythms around and within us, and where we feel in the same channel as them. It may be when we engage in something we love, such as music, painting, literature or gardening. It may also be that we share, discover, communicate with someone we love. This is a very different tempo and we sense that sudden rich, satisfying quality. We understand the striking difference. We want to increase the “time independent” moments in our lives. This approach keeps us away from the sovereignty of urgent jobs that constantly press upon us. It creates and supports internal and external harmony.
Weaknesses: In general, this approach is a response to the dependence on urgency and causes a escape rather than helping to create quality of life. Frequently, it causes loss of vital elements such as vision, purpose and balance. In addition, often achieving the important means to swim against the stream, using free will instead of allowing it to flow.
Improvement Approach (Self-Consciousness):
According to the basic paradigm of this approach, there are fundamental deficiencies in the psychic world as a result of the environment, inheritance, scenarios and other influences, which are manifested in contradictory or dysfunctional time management behaviors.
An individual affected by an example of role or family culture at an early age may become a “perfectionist”; is afraid to delegate authority, tends to manage everything to the smallest detail, spends excessive time on projects that exceed the effective use of resources. The scenario of una liking people “, adopted in childhood or under environmental pressure, can turn into overbearing and over-undertaking with a sense of rejection. The person who “lets things go” can be as afraid of success if it has hurt someone else in the past, or has cost a lot in family life. The proposed solution is to improve the psychological and sociological disability that creates time management problems.
Strengths: This is a useful approach; because it focuses on some paradigms that create our behavior, ie the roots of the problem. It leads to the development of self-consciousness and prepares people for fundamental changes and advances.
Weaknesses: The recommended healing methods are as varied as those used in general therapy. Although this approach provides valuable insights and helps identify a part of the problem, it carries diagnostic value rather than prescription. There is no claim to a holistic approach to the solution, and many of the approaches adopted are contradictory even on the most fundamental issues. It also covers a very narrow area. He is not interested in many different time management issues.
Covey (2000) opposes the traditional time management approaches described above, although many of them are valuable contributions, but most of them arise from the paradigm of control, independent work, efficiency and kronos time. Covey has put forward the “principle-Centric Approach”. This approach is faster, more diligent, smarter, exceeds traditional recipes that suggest more. it offers a compass, not a second watch; because the direction we are moving is more important than time of movement. Covey puts forward his views on this subject (Covey, 2000: 10):
Traditional time management means that if you do things more efficiently, you will eventually gain control of your life; As your control increases the peace and satisfaction you seek assumes. We do not agree. Our happiness is based on our ability to keep everything under control. Even if we supervise the choice we make between different activities, we cannot control the results of our choices. Universal laws or principles do this. Therefore, the supervision of our life is not in our hands, but in the hands of the principles. Koch also criticizes the approaches to time management (Koch, 1999: 165167): Our current use of time is not rational. There is therefore no point in trying to make marginal progress in the use of time. We need to go back to the beginning and change all our assumptions about time.
Time management accepts that we know where time is good and where it is used badly. For the principle 80/20, this is not a reliable assumption. If we knew what was important, we’d already be doing it.
Time management usually teaches to categorize the list of ‘to-do’ tasks in order of priority A, B, C. This ends in practice when most people classify 60-70 percent of their activities as A and B first. These people conclude that it is time that they actually suffer. This is why they are already interested in time management. So they make better planning, work longer, show greater seriousness, and are usually frustrated. They become dependent on time management, but this does not radically change what they do, nor does it reduce the sense of guilt they think they are not doing enough.
The basis for managing time and ourselves is to set personal and professional priorities and to make all arrangements accordingly.
In order to keep our time under control, we need to keep an eye on the clock and focus on our business and priorities. This does not mean working longer and more; it means working more systematically. It means adjusting time and effort more intelligently. It means setting clear goals and striving to achieve them.
then we have to worry, not the inadequacy of time, but the tendency to spend most of the time in low quality. Accelerating or using time more efficiently will not help us; in fact, these forms of thought are themselves problems rather than solutions.
The way to use and manage time, which is an extremely important resource, is to work continuously and in a process of continuous improvement and development, either personally or in our organizations.